Blended Education Through On-Line Computer Program During Crises Demonstrating the Extraocular Muscles of Goat’s Eye

Document Type : Original Article


1 Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University 44511, Zagazig, Egypt

2 Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University 44511, Zagazig, Egypt.


There were six E-Learning categories including E-Learning without existence and E-communication (self-learning), E-Learning with personal attendance but lacked E-communication, E-Learning without attendance and with E-communication, E-Learning with online existence and E-communication, E-Learning with intermittent attendance and E-communication and E-Learning with existence and E-communication. The pandemic crisis had abruptly altered ophthalmology education, leading to the creation of innovative online curricula. For demonstration the extraocular muscles of goat, two alive healthy adult female goats were subjected for computed tomography (CT) and five goat’s head were kept in formalin 10% then dissected carefully. CT was courteous for imaging the different structures of the eye; eyeball and its adnexa especially extraocular muscles. Moreover, for evaluation the postponement of the disease outside the eyeball toward the orbital cavity and brain. The extraocular muscles fixed the eyeball in the orbital cavity which controls movement of the eye. There were four recti muscles; dorsal, ventral, lateral and medial and the two oblique muscles; dorsal and ventral, in addition to the retractor oculi (bulbi) muscle. The four recti muscles controlled the motility of the eyeball according to their position. The dorsal oblique muscle moved the dorsal part of the eyeball ventrally and medially. While the ventral oblique one rotated the eyeball dorsally and medially. Additionally, the retractor oculi muscle acts to withdraw the eyeball. Finally, studying muscular anatomy and movement was considered one of the most important medical scientific studies, which in turn helped surgeons in treating strabismus cases, especially in humans. The undergraduate students and postgraduates preferred blended learning rather than traditional learning methods. 


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