Possible Alternative Strategies to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

Document Type : Review Article


Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt


Antibiotics are regarded as one of the twentieth century's most important discoveries, but antibiotic-resistant microorganisms rapidly appear when humans and animals use antibiotics carelessly. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has taken on international significance in recent years as the primary cause of death and economic catastrophe worldwide. Finding and creating innovative techniques to tackle antibiotic resistance is urgently required. The antibiotic resistance challenge cannot be solved by new medications alone. This article highlights the causes, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and the adverse effects brought on by its widespread occurrence. Additionally, it focuses on the other novel approaches that may show effectiveness in controlling and combating AMR, including, certain physicochemical methods, antimicrobial peptides, medicinal plant, bacteriophage, probiotics, synobiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplants, and nanoparticles. These alternative approaches may become promising methods to enhance both human and animal health and decrease the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Governments, institutions, and regulatory agencies should work together to develop innovative strategies for enhancing antibiotic efficacy through novel targets.



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