A Mini-Review on Newcastle Disease Virus in Egypt, With Particular References to Common Vaccines and Their Development

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University 44511, Zagazig, Egypt


The poultry industry is a very important sector for the worldwide economy. Among viral infections, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most serious problems facing such a business, as it causes high mortalities, a drastic drop in egg production, and severe economic losses among poultry flocks. The virus can infect a majority of bird species, indicating its broad host-range. It is a major challenge to overcome this devastating viral infection by the application of strict biosecurity measures and well-designated vaccination protocols. Vaccination and/or confinement and slaughtering of infected flocks in verified outbreaks are used to prevent and control Newcastle disease. Live attenuated vaccines, inactivated NDV vaccines, and recombinant vaccines have all been used to vaccinate birds against NDV. Unfortunately, the disease is still attacking and causing severe outbreaks. Therefore, the purpose of the present work is intended to provide an updated overview on the situation of NDV vaccines applied in the Egyptian poultry flocks and/or worldwide, along with brief informative data about the virus' history, morphology, taxonomy, and prevention and control.


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